The Master’s program “World Economics - International trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” (2 academic year, 4 semesters) is coordinated by the Department of International Economic Relations of the Faculty of International Relations of the Belarusian State University since 2012. For this period, students not only from Belarus, but also from China, Russia, India, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Iraq, Jordan joined and finished successfully the program.
The Master’s program offers a comprehensive education in economics. It offers an opportunity to overseas students who are interested in researching of mechanisms of functioning and regulation of world economic system at the national, regional and international levels, processes of internationalization of the economic relations and at the same time training foreign languages.
The academic process of this master’s program is organized in English.
The main goal of the master’s program “World Economics” is to provide indepth theoretical and empirical knowledge in order to analyze modern trends of the world economy. The program provides overseas students with one year of analytical training focused on international economic relations and provide students with a platform to develop the critical thinking and research skills and knowledge necessary to become experts at analyzing modern trends of the world economy and international economic relations.
The Curriculum covers a wide range of theoretical and practical issues and includes some important objectives. The Master's Program broadens the content of the undergraduate program and provides students with essential tools for advanced studies and a career as an economist. Students will be able to analyze economic policy problems using state-of-the-art methods and to develop successful strategies.
Special attention is paid to current problems of the world economy and international economic relations, especially to international movement of capital and labor, international monetary and financial relations, international economic integration in different regions of the world, the role of the World Trade Organization in the regulation of international trade, non-tariff measures to protect the domestic market under WTO rules, the process of accession to WTO.
The academic courses of the master’s program provide the development of the modern economic thinking among undergraduates, their acquisition of deep theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the field of organization and management of foreign economic activity at the micro level, macro - and mesolevel, and the formation on this basis of the relevant professional qualities of future specialists
Masters interview questions
(Major World Economics)
- Word Economy: definition and structure.
- Main criteria and indicators of the development of the national and world economy.
- Developed industrialized countries in the structure of the world economy.
- Developing countries in the structure of the world economy.
- Transition economies in the structure of the world economy.
- Competitiveness of national economies in modern conditions.
- The balance of payments (BOP) as a reflection of the external economic relations of the national economy.
- Modern transnational corporations (TNCs) and multinational corporations (MNCs), transnational banks in the world economy.
- Essence of the economic globalization and directions of the development of its process.
- Global economic challenges and role of international organizations in tackling them.
- International Economic Relations: essence, forms and role in the development of the world economy.
- International division of labour: essence and two basic forms (the international specialization and international production cooperation).
- International trade theories.
- International trade in goods. The role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in the global economy.
- International trade in services: structure, dynamics and trends.
- Foreign trade policy and its types.
- Tariff and non-tariff measures to international trade.
- International labor migration: essence, causes and main types. Migration policy.
- International capital movements: essence, forms and main causes.
- International economic integration: essence, stages and main integration associations.
- Explain Word Economy: definition and key features.
- What is the difference between Word Economy and International Economic Relations?
- Explain Globalization: definition, benefits and effects.
- What is difference between globalization and internationalization?
- Explain the role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the World Trade Organization in the global economy.
- Explain Free Trade: definition, pros and cons, examples.
- Explain National Integration: definition, importance, causes and examples.
- Explain Multinational Corporation: definition, characteristics, types and examples.
- Explain International Marketing: definition, scope, factors, significance, strategy, characteristics and examples.
- World Trade Organization (WTO): definition, functions, the guiding fundamental principles and features
- Explain international division of labour: definition, advantages and disadvantages, key features of the new international division of labour in the 1970s (also known as global division of labour).
- Explain Incoterms: definition, main purpose, impact on international trade.
- Define international factor mobility. What is the relationship to the international mobility of factor of production?
- Explain International Trade: definition, pros and cons, effects on the economy.
- Explain International payment: definition and main methods.
- Explain International Capital Market: definition, types and the main components.
- Explain International Transportation: definition and basic modes.
- Explain International Technology Transfer: definition, types, importance and problems.
- What will be the biggest challenges for the global economy in 5 years? Your opinion.
- Explain International competitiveness: definition, key measures of competitiveness and main factors that affect international competitiveness. What is competitiveness of a country? What are competitive advantages of China in the Global Market? What are competitive advantages of Belarus? Your opinion.
1st semester (total 30 credits)
Module "Theoretical Economics"
- Microeconomic analysis and policy (3 credits)
Microeconomic analysis and policy
1st semester (3 credits)
The course “Microeconomic analysis and policy” focuses on methodologi-cal, theoretical and practical aspects of the behavior of microeconomic entities and their state regulation. Within the framework of this course, the issues of the func-tioning of various markets, related problems, as well as approaches and conse-quences of their state regulation are considered. The purpose of the course is to develop the economic thinking of students in the field of microanalysis, expansion of these skills for analyzing specific microeconomic situations, formation of skills to apply theoretical knowledge in the process of making managerial decisions. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “Microeconomic analysis and policy” is designed for 102 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 36 (lectures – 18, seminars – 18). The form of knowledge control – End-of-term Test.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
PART 1. PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
- What does Economics mean and what does it study and analyze.
- How people make decisions. Principle 1: people face tradeoffs. Principle 2: the cost of something is what you give up to get it. Principle 3: rational people think at the margin. Principle 4: people respond to incentives.
- How people interact with one another. Principle 5: trade can make everyone better off. Principle 6: markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. Principle 7: governments can sometimes improve market outcomes.
- Functioning of the economy as a whole. Principle 8: a country’s standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services. Principle 9: prices rise when the government prints too much money. Principle 10: society faces a short-run tradeoff Between inflation and unemployment.
PART 2. HOW MARKETS WORK
Topic 1. The Market Forces of Supply and Demand. Market Equilibrium
- What is a market? What is competition?
- Demand: demand schedule, the law of demand, demand curve. Individual demand and market demand for a good.
- Elasticity of demand. Types of demand elasticity and ways to calculate them. Factors that affect the elasticity of demand for a good.
- Change in demand and change in quantity demanded. Factors that can cause a shift in demand curve.
- Supply: the law of supply. The individual and market supply curve. How costs affect supply.
- Elasticity of supply and its calculation.
- Change in supply and change in quantity supplied. Several factors that change in supply
- Market equilibrium: equilibrium point, equilibrium quantity, equilibrium price. The effect of changes in supply and demand.
Topic 2. Efficiency of Markets
- Willingness to pay. Consumer surplus. Using the demand curve to measure consumer surplus. How a lower price raises consumer surplus. What does consumer surplus measure?
- Cost and the Willingness to sell. Producer Surplus. Using the supply curve to measure producer surplus. How a higher price raises producer surplus.
- Total surplus in a market: how to calculate and evaluate via market equilib-rium.
- Market efficiency and market failure.
- International trade: the winners and losers from trade.
Topic 3. Government Intervention in the Market Functioning
- Controls on prices. Price floors and price ceilings. How price ceilings affect market outcomes. How price floors affect market outcomes. The example of a price floor: the minimum wage.
- Evaluating price controls.
- Taxes and subsidies. Effect of a tax and effect of a subsidy on the market equilibrium.
- A payroll tax and tax burden. The cases of a tax burden with different de-mand elasticity and the supply elasticity.
- The evaluating of the government intervention to the market.
PART 3. FIRM BEHAVIOR AND THE ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY
Topic 1. The Costs of Production
- The role of costs in production process.
- The kinds of production cost. Accounting (explicit) costs. Implicit costs. Economic costs. Accounting and economic profit. Sunk costs.
- Short run versus long run period. Total cost. Fixed versus variable costs. Their graphical analysis.
- Average total costs. Average fixed cost and average variable cost. Marginal cost. Their calculation and graphical analysis.
Topic 2. Firms in Competitive Markets
- General characteristics of perfect competition. Firms as “price takers”. Pro-ducing at a loss in the short run.
- Firms' decision-making based on a margin approach. Calculating profit or loss: graphical analysis.
- Evaluating the effectiveness of the perfect competition market. Zero profits in the long run period. Firms producing at their lowest average cost. Consumer and producer surplus in perfect competition.
Topic 3. Monopoly and its Government Regulation
- General characteristics of the monopoly market. Barriers to entry in monop-oly market and there sources.
- Market power of Monopolies.
- How monopolies make production and pricing decisions. Demand and Marginal Revenue Curves. The key difference between a competitive firm and a monopoly.
- The rule of maximizing profit: producing at MC = MR. Profits and losses for monopolies.
- Consequences of monopoly activities and their regulation. Producing at a Higher Average Cost. Loss of surplus with a monopoly. Antitrust laws and other ways of monopoly regulations.
Topic 4. Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly
- Attributes of monopolistic competition market. Making decisions on a mar-gin approach. Long run equilibrium of monopolistic competition firm. Conse-quences of monopolistic competition.
- The main features of the oligopoly market. The concentration ratio. The specific of the firms’ behavior in the oligopoly market. The general firm’s strate-gic interaction.
- The ways to regulate the oligopoly by government.
PART 4. THE ECONOMICS OF LABOR MARKET AND GOVERNMENT INCOME REGULATION
Topic 1. The Economics of Labor Market
- The demand for labor. The production function and the marginal product of labor. The value of the marginal product and the demand for labor. The individual and market labor-demand curve. The factors that cause the labor-demand curve to shif.
- The Supply of labor. The trade-off between work and leisure. The individual labor-supply curve. The market labor-supply curve. The factors that cause the labor-supply curve to shift.
- Equilibrium in the Labor Market. Shifts in Labor Supply. Shifts in Labor Demand. The changes in equilibrium.
- How price floors affect outcomes of labor market. How the minimum wage impacts on the market for teenage labor.
Topic 2. Income inequality and its government regulation
- The political philosophy of redistributing income. Utilitarianism and its principles. Liberalism and its principles. Libertarianism and its principles.
- Policies to Reduce Poverty. Minimum-Wage Laws. Welfare system. Nega-tive Income Tax. In-Kind Transfers. Antipoverty Programs and Work Incentives.
Module "World Economics and International Competitiveness"
- World economics and foreign economic policy (3 credits)
World economics and foreign economic policy
1st semester (3 credits)
The purpose of studying the course "World economics and Foreign economic policy" is to form theoretical knowledge about the structure of the world economy, modern trends in its development, as well as the forms of international economic relations associated with trade, investment, and economic and financial activities of the subjects of the world economy. The main objectives of the discipline are: to study the structure and current trends in the development of the world economy in the context internationalization; to explore modern world commodity markets in countries with an open economy; to analyze the conditions for the implementation of foreign trade and investment activities and instruments for their regulation; to study the processes of regional integration and globalization. The course aims to equip students with knowledge, tools, and skills to analyze international trade issues and foreign economic policies. The form of knowledge control – credit.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. WORLD ECONOMY AND INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT OF FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
- The emergence and stages of development of the world economy. Mobility of factors of production. The content of the concepts of "world economy" and "international economy." Modern forms of international economic relations. Typology of the world countries (according to the classification of the IMF, UN, IBRD). Centers of economic power. The G7 countries, the newly industrialized countries, the Asian "tigers," the transitional states. The role of developing countries in the world economy. Open economy: concept, signs, factors of influence. Indicators and criteria of openness. Modern trends in the development of the world economy.
- Classical theories of the international division of labor (IDL). Theories of absolute (A. Smith) and comparative (D. Ricardo) advantages. Heckscher-Ohlin's idea of factors of production. Leontiev's paradox. T. Rybchinsky's theorem. The role of IDO in the modern economy. International specialization: concept, types. Stages of formation of global specialization. International cooperation: signs, conditions, areas of implementation.
Topic 2. THE INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY. COUNTERTRADE
- World commodity market: state, stages of evolution, factors of influence. Geographic and industry structure. Conjuncture. Tradable and non-tradable goods. The specifics of pricing in various commodity markets. Types of foreign trade prices. International transactions of purchase and sale of goods. Wholesale. International commodity exchanges: types, functions, methods of organization. Classification of countertrade transactions: barter, trade compensation, industrial compensation.
- State regulation of foreign trade: goals and levels of implementation—protectionism: concept, types, functions. Free trade. Foreign trade policy: concept, tools. Customs and tariff regulation of foreign exchange. Methods for determining the customs value. Customs tariff. Customs duties: classifications of types, functions, principles of accrual. Anti-dumping and countervailing duties. Advantages and disadvantages of using tariffs. Non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation: quantitative restrictions (countering), bans (dumping, economic blockade), "voluntary" export restrictions, hidden protectionism (technical barriers, taxes, requirements for the content of the local component), non-economic methods (trade agreements, legal regimes). WTO in the regulation of international trade.
Topic 3. INTERNATIONAL PAYMENT METHODS
Interbank correspondent relations. The basic scheme for making an international bank transfer. Documentary credit in international settlements. Letter of credit transaction. Forms and types of letters of credit. Methods and conditions of execution. Letter of credit with deferred payment. Documentary collection: concept, types. The basic scheme of a collection operation. Advantages and disadvantages of using the documentary collection. Settlements by promissory notes. Types of bills (transferable and straightforward). The legal nature of an invoice. The content of the bill of exchange. Methods of ensuring the reliability of promissory notes: acceptance and aval. The order of circulation of statements, types of endorsements, and their functions. Checks in settlements for cross-border transactions. Features of the check form of payments. Guarantees and sureties for checks. Plastic cards: types, advantages for contractors.
Topic 4. INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICY
- Theories of foreign investment: transnationalization of capital (the "Paradigm of flying geese" by Akamatsu; the "L cycle of goods" by R. Vernon), foreign direct investment in the period of globalization of the economy (theory of Competitive advantages by M. Porter; Eclectic paradigm by J. Dunning; the Path of investment development of the nation by J. Dunning).
- International investments: types, functions. Types (aggressive, conservative, moderate) and motives (economic and non-economic) of investors. Concepts and forms of direct, portfolio, and credit investments. Effects of FDI for the recipient country. World securities market: general market and specific functions. The main participants in the stock market. Primary and secondary markets. Types of securities: basic and derivatives. Forward and futures contracts: types, differences. Options. Investment portfolio. Diversification. Eurobonds. International credit investments: classification of types, functions. The interest rate on international loans.
- Investment climate and investment attractiveness: concept, factors of influence. Classification of foreign investment risks. Types of investment regimes. State policy to stimulate foreign investment. Mechanisms for eliminating double taxation. Regulation of international investment activities at the regional and international levels.
Topic 5. BUSINESS INTERNATIONALIZATION
Modern trends in the development of international business. Internationalization of production and capital: concept, features, models. Transnational corporations: criteria, competitive advantages. Examples of the largest TNCs in the sectors of the economy. Transnationalization and Network Spread Index. Competitive advantages of an international corporation (according to M. Porter concept). Positive and negative effects of TNCs for the recipient country and the world economy. Organizational structure in a multinational corporation: associates, subsidiaries, branches. Production network building strategies. Principles for the formation of TNC governing bodies. International company code. The principles of organizing intra-firm trade. Modern methods, goals, and tools of transfer pricing. State regulation of transfer prices.
Topic 6. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
- Historical aspects of cooperation between the state and private entrepreneurs at various stages of economic development. Modern economic preconditions for PPP use (infrastructure deficit, budgetary funds limit, negative consequences of privatization, the efficiency of cooperation between the state and business). J. Major's political reform of social partnership in Great Britain.
- Public-private partnership: essence, content, conceptual apparatus. Approaches to the definition of PPPs proposed by international organizations and individual countries; the principles of its implementation enshrined in national legislation. Critical features of PPP (various forms of ownership, the presence of an entrepreneurial component, the partnership nature of the relationship between the parties, the division of responsibilities and risks, the priority of socially significant projects). Priority areas for the implementation of PPP projects. Examples of world-famous foreign PPP practice: Eiffel Tower, Eurotunnel, London Underground.
Topic 7. ECONOMIC INTEGRATION POLICY
- International economic integration: essence, goals, prerequisites, modern development trends, effects. Forms of economic integration: preferential agreement, free trade zone, customs union, common market, monetary union, political union.
- The development of European integration. The European Union in Modern Conditions: Problems and Prospects. Sub-regional integration associations: Baltic Free Trade Area, Benelux. Western European economic integration. USMCA's North American Integration Model. Prospects, Opportunities, and Threats for Signing the Transatlantic Agreement. MERCOSUR (Common Market of the Southern Cone Countries) and ANCOM (Andean Community) as the most significant economic associations in Latin America. ASEAN: prospects for the development of cooperation between Asian countries. Economic integration of the CIS countries. Opportunities and problems of the Eurasian Economic Union.
Module "Information Technology for Business Management"
- Intelligent Data Analysis Technology (3 credits)
Intelligent Data Analysis Technology
1st semester (3 credits)
Aims and goals of the academic course
The course “Intelligent Data Analysis Technologies” introduces students to applied tasks and methods for exploring dependencies between various data and further applying the knowledge about these dependencies in processing and visualization tasks. Solving various tasks primarily depends on figuring out interdependencies between various phenomena. These interdependencies are the result of simultaneous impact of multiple causes. Therefore, it’s necessary to reveal major ones when studying these phenomena. At the same time, it’s important to estimate correctly other unaccounted and random causes to receive credible conclusions. Solving the mentioned tasks is carried out, first of all, with applied statistical analysis methods, that’s why the majority of the course contents consist of these methods.
Aims of the academic course:
- To create knowledge base for mastering basic concepts, algorithms and working methods for intellectual data analysis.
- Formation of skills of practical solving of statistical data analysis tasks and received results visualization with using R language and standard Microsoft Office tools.
Goals of the academic course:
The main goal for students is mastering theory and practice on data analysis, analysis of data visualization and processing facilities.
The structure of the academic course
In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “International Trade and Incoterms” is designed for 100 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 42 (lectures – 18, laboratories – 24). The form of knowledge control – pass.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. Data Analysis Basics
Introduction. Types of Statistical Data and Methods for Their Primary Processing. Qualitative and Quantitative Scales. Mechanical and Random Selection for Sampling.
Topic 2. Numerical Characteristics of Variational Series
Methods of Preliminary Data Analysis Based on Descriptive Statistics and Graphical Representations. Variational Series, Robust Statistics. Calculation of Mean Values, Variance, Mode, Median. Building of Histograms, Cumulative Charts.
Topic 3. Correlation Analysis
Research Methods of Paired Statistical Dependencies Based on Correlation Analysis (for Quantitative, Rank, and Nominal Scales). Building of Scatter Plot, Correlation Matrix. Calculation of Correlation Coefficient, Figuring Out its Significance. Chaddock Scale.
Topic 4. Regression Analysiss
Research Methods of Paired Statistical Dependencies Based on Regression Analysis. Least Squares Method. Software for Calculation of Unknown Parameters of Linear One-Dimensional Regression Models; Graphical Representation of These Models.
Topic 5. Basic Constructions of R Language
Facilities and Basic Constructions of R Language for Implementation of Studied Data Analysis Sections (Calculation of Numerical Characteristics of Variational Series, Correlation Analysis, Regression Analysis, etc.). Control Structures and Functions. Statistical Functions. Data Import and Export in R Language. Using Expansions, Libraries and Graphic Facilities. Comparison of Capabilities of R Language and standard Microsoft Office tools.
Topic 6. Dynamic Series
Methods of Dynamic Series Filtration and Forecasting. Components of a Dynamic Series: Trend, Periodic and Random Fluctuations. Individual and Generalizing Characteristics. Analysis Methods: a) Means Method, b) Moving Average, c) Analytical Rectification.
Topic 7. Cluster Analysis
Cluster Analysis Algorithms for Heterogeneous Multidimensional Data. Data Scaling. Cluster Characteristics: Center, Radius, Standard Deviation, Size. Agglomerative and Divisive Clusterization Methods. K-means Clusterization Algorithm.
Topic 8. Discriminant Analysis
Methods and stages of Data Mining (Decision Trees, Clusterization Algorithms, Regression Analysis, Neural Networks, Time Series, etc.). Place of Intellectual Data Analysis in Decision Support Processing. General Look of an Artificial Neuron, Kohonen Artificial Neural Network and its Geometrical Interpretation.
Topic 9. Training of Neural Networks
Data Mining Process. Data Mining Applications (Trading, Banking, Telecommunications, etc.). Forecasting Based on Knowing Dependencies, Trends, and Statistics. An Analyst’s Place in Intellectual Data Analysis Systems. Training of Neural Networks for Defining Weights of Synaptic Connections. Supervised and Unsupervised Training Algorithms.
Module "Research Work"
- Research Seminar (3 credits)
Module "International Trade and Innovations"
- International trade and Incoterms (3 credits)
International trade and Incoterms
1st semester (3 credits)
The course “International Trade and Incoterms” focuses on theoretical and methodological aspects of international trade, including introduction to classical trade theories, neoclassical trade theories and modern trade theories, closely examines the policies that governments adopt toward international trade and the effects they make on countries and their economic entities, provides the principles, agreements and practices of the World Trade Organization (WTO), introduction to operation rule to practice of international trade such as Incoterms 2020. The purpose of the course is to equip students with knowledge, tools and skills to analyze international trade issues and policies. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “International Trade and Incoterms” is designed for 100 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 36 (lectures – 20, seminars – 16). The form of knowledge control – exam.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. International Trade: Definition, History and Theory
Trade. International Trade (Export, Import, Balance of Trade). Historical Overview of International Trade. The Theories of International Trade: Classical Theories (Mercantilism, Absolute advantage, Comparative advantage, Heckscher-ohlin theory, Leotief Paradox) and Modern Theories (Country similarity theory, Product life cycle theory, Global strategic rivalry theory, Porter’s national competitive advantage theory).
Topic 2. International Trade Transactions and Their Classification. Digital Trade
International Trade Transactions. Classification of International Trade Transactions (by Trade Directions, By Type of Goods and Services, by Product Completeness, by Methods of Trade in Goods and Services). Counter trade. Barter. Compensation transaction. Counter purchase. Offset. Tolling. Consumer goods. Trade in Services classification. Patent. Intermediaries (functions, types and etc.). Digital Trade. Digital Goods and Services. Electronic Commerce. Digitalization of trade. National Paperless Trading System. Smart contract.
Topic 3. State Interference in International Trade: Tariff and Non-Tariff Regulation
Foreign Economic Policy (Foreign Trade Policy, Policy on Attracting Foreign Investment and Regulating Domestic Investment abroad, Foreign Exchange Policy). Free Trade and Protectionism. Customs Tariff and Its Functions. Customs Duties. Most-favored-nation (MFN) Duty Rates. Harmonized System (HS) Codes. The Customs Value of the Goods and Methods for Its Determination. Customs Procedures: Their Meaning and Types. Value Added Tax (VAT) and Excise. Non-tariff Barrier. The Main Classifications of Non-tariff Barriers/Non-tariff Measures (NTMs).
Topic 4. Regulations of international trade at the international level. WTO rules.
International Trade Agreements. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). The World Trade Organization (WTO). WTO Rules. Advantages of WTO Membership. Regional Trade Agreements and WTO. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG): essence and content.
Topic 5. Preparation of international trade transactions
Steps of Preparing an International Trade Contract. Commercial Offers and Inquiry Letters in the Process of Finding a Partner. Offer. Firm Offer. Free Offer. Inquiry. Order. List of Documents Used in International Trade (Pro Forma Invoice. Contract. Commercial Invoice. Bill of Exchange. Bill of Lading. Letter Of Credit, Certificate of Origin of Goods, Consular Invoice and etc.). Cost Components in International Trade.
Topic 6. International Trade Contracts
International Trade Contract: Definition and Structure. The Sales Contract for Goods. Standard (Model) Contract. The Contents of the Main Articles (Clauses) Of the International Trade Contract.
Topic 7. Incoterms
Incoterms Rules: Overview. International Trade Customs. Rules for Any Mode or Modes of Transport. Rules for Sea and Inland Waterway Transportation. FOB. CIF. CFR.
Topic 8. Risks and Insurance in International Trade
Risks in International Trade. Commercial Risks. Political Risks. Insurance in International Trade Practice and Its Main Types. Property Insurance. Insurance Peculiarities in International Trade. Liability Insurance. Cargo Insurance. Transportation Insurance. Incoterms and Cargo Insurance. Deductible. Insurance Policy. Green Card System. Hedges.International trade and Incoterms
- Innovation management (3 credits)
1st semester (3 credits)
The course “Innovation Management” focuses on the practices and processes to manage innovation effectively. The course aims to provide students with basic concepts of innovation and covers areas such as the introduction to innovation management concepts, typology of innovation, models of innovation, disruptive innovation, national systems of innovation, generating ideas and the organization of creativity as a process, design thinking, open innovation and technology transfer, innovation strategies and strategic alliances, innovation business models. The purpose of the course is to equip students with knowledge, tools and skills to identify and analyze key challenges of innovation management, understand different aspects of innovation, the importance of new technologies and innovation as key factors of competitiveness, analyze complex innovation processes, apply different innovation concepts to the context of specific firms and industries. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “Innovation Management” is designed for 100 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 36 (lectures – 24, seminars – 12). The form of knowledge control – exam.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. Innovation Management. Introduction to concepts. Typology of Innovation.
Innovation. Introduction to concepts. Analysis of the innovation definition. Invention and innovation. Typology of innovation. Architectural innovation. Incremental Innovation. Radical Innovation. Disruptive Innovation. Business model innovation. Process and technology innovation. Organizational innovation. Social innovation. Environmental innovation.
Topic 2. Models of Innovation. Disruptive Innovation.
Innovation. Introduction to concepts. The linear model. The technology-push and market-pull models. The simultaneous coupling model. The interactive model. Disruptive Innovation. Disruptive Innovation Model. Sustaining and Disruptive innovation. Characteristics of disruptive businesses
Topic 3. National Systems of Innovation. Triple Helix. The Geography of Innovation
The role of the state. National innovation systems. Triple HelixModel. Triple Helix of university–industry–government relationships that drives innovation. Innovation Trends. Kondratieff waves of growth and their main features. The shifting geography of innovation. Global Innovation Index. Bloomberg Innovation Index. European innovation scoreboard 2020. Innovation Leaders. Strong Innovators. Moderate Innovators. Modest Innovators.
Topic 4. The organization of creativity as a process
Innovative climate. Obstacles to the development of innovative initiatives. The reasons for limiting innovative initiatives The rules for transferring creative initiatives. The researcher’s motivation. Factors to enhance creative process and innovative initiatives. Organization of inventive and innovative work at the enterprises.
Topic 5. Open Innovation and Technology Transfer.
Open Innovation Strategy. Closed Innovation and Open innovation. The Barriers. Environmental Barriers. Managerial and organizational Barriers. Communication barriers. Cultural Barriers. NIH (Not-Invented-Here). Motives and Risks of open innovation The concept of technology transfer. Inward technology transfer. Outward technology transfer. Models of technology transfer. Barriers to technology transfer. Globalisation of technology. Patent applications by region. Patents. Trademarks and brands.
Topic 6. Generating Ideas
Methods for Searching Innovative Ideas. Benefits and Disadvantages. Brainstorming. Brainwriting. Synectics. Elimination of the “dead lock” situations. The use of morphological maps.
Topic 7. Design thinking
Design thinking for idea generation and product development. Human-centered approach. Design thinking process for product creation. Design thinking framework.
Topic 8. Managing Different Work Styles.
Identifying the work styles of your team members. Pioneers. Guardians. Drivers. Integrators. Managing communication styles in the workplace. Innovation climate.
Topic 9. Managing Intellectual Property.
Managing Intellectual Property. The importance of this aspect of innovation. The origins of the patent system. Patents and other forms of intellectual property. Patent trolls. Trademarks vs brands. Logos.
Topic 10. Innovation strategies and Strategic alliances.
Choosing a strategy. Innovations with short or long life cycle. Organization Innovation Strategies. Leader / Offensive innovation strategies. Fast follower. Defensive innovative strategies Cost minimization / Innovation imitation strategies. Market segmentation specialist / traditional strategies Strategy of violents, patients, commutants, explerents. Strategic alliances and networks. Licensing. Supplier relations. Outsourcing. Joint venture. Collaboration (non-joint ventures). R&D consortia. Industry clusters. Innovation networks. Prisoner’s dilemma
Topic 11. Innovation business models.
Business model snapshot. The case of ChotuKool Chinese Innovation Business Model The concept of Lean Startup Agile and Waterfall Methodologies
Topic 12. New Service Innovation and business models.
The knowledge-based economy. The role of the service sector. Outsourcing. Main outsourcing risks Classification of services. New service development models. New Business Models. The role of customer. Business models. The bait and hook revenue model.Innovation management
- International projects design and management (3 credits)
Module «Foreign language»
- Foreign language for international business (6 credits)
Module "International Law"
- International trade law (3 credits)
International Trade Law
1st semester (3 credits)
The course «International Trade Law» focuses on theoretical and practical aspects of international commercial law, closely examines the international and domestic legal sources that regulate international trade such as United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980, Incoterms 2020, UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2016, provides the rules and principles of E-commerce and international Sale of Good, Agency, Distribution contracts as well as overview of disputes resolution process and The law governing international commercial contracts. The purpose of the course is to equip students with knowledge, tools and skills to analyze international commercial law issues and understand case law. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “International Trade and Incoterms” is designed for 102 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 36 (lectures – 24, seminars – 12). The form of knowledge control – exam.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. International Trade (commercial) Law: concept, nature, sources, international organizations
International Trade Law and International Commerce Law: aims, subject. Historical Overview of International Trade Law. Sources of international sales law: international treaties, supranational rules, international customs and recommendations. Lex mercatoria i International trade organizations.
Topic 2. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980
The Vienna convention of 1980 as uniform substantive law: unification of the legal regime for the international sales of goods as a purpose of the Vienna convention of 1980. Material scope of the Convention: the concept of the sale of goods. the place of business. Form of the contract. Limits to the principle of freedom-from-form-requirements Formation of the contract. an offer: requirement to indicate the goods and intention of the offeror. counter-offer. the time of conclusion of a contract. Rights and obligations of the parties. standards relating to the goods’ quality, function and packaging. Examination of the good and notice of the lack of conformity. Period for the examination. Obligation to give a notice. Buyer’s remedies for breach of contract by the seller. Obligations of the buyer. Price of the contract. Seller’s remedies for breach of contract by the buyer. Passing of risk. Damages. Force-majeure.
Topic 3. Lex mercatoria: INCOTERMS 2020
The history, the legal nature, the overview and the goals of INCOTERMS. The material scope of INCOTERMS. The structure of INCOTRMS. The general characteristics of the INCOTERMS 2020’ clauses. The form of agreement on the use of INCOTERMS in the contract.
Topic 4. Lex mercatoria: UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2016
The history, the legal nature, the overview and the goals of UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2016. The material scope of UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2016. The structure of UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2016. The general characteristics of the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2016’ clauses. The form of agreement on the use of UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts in the contract.
Topic 5. E-commerce in international relations
E-commerce International Legislation. Model Law on Electronic Commerce (UNCITRAL MLEC, 1996). Resolution of the UN General Assembly A/51/628 of 1997. the E-commerce Agreement Recommendation No.31, UN/CEFACT (Electronic Commerce Agreement, 2000). WTO Geneva Ministerial Declaration on Global Electronic Commerce 1998. EU Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (Directive on electronic commerce). The Digital Single Market and the e-Commerce Directive. The Digital Services Act. Compulsory information for customers. The China E-Commerce Law 2018; the scope, tax obligations, rules to protect IP rights, fair competition obligations, requirement to disclose accurate product/service information and to avoid engaging in misleading and deceptive practices privacy protection.
Topic 6. International Agency Contract. International Distribution Contract
The International Agency Contract: The sources of law, Definition and Structure. Conclusion of Agency Contract. Primary obligations of the Agent. Additional obligations of the Agent. Primary obligations of the Principal. Remuneration of the Agent. Indemnity for clientele: the EU mandatory law. The International Distribution Contract: The sources of law, Definition and Structure. The Conclusion of the Distribution Contract. The Primary obligations of the the Disributor. The additional obligations of the the Disributor. The Primary obligations of the Disributor. The Remuneration of the the Disributor. The Clientele compensation.
Topic 7. Force-major in international commercial relations
The sources of law of force majeure. Definition of force majeure. The criteria of extremeness and inevitability of force majeure events. Confirmation of the existence of force majeure in the case law. Force majeure as a contractual clause.
Topic 8. Dispute Resolution in international commercial relations
The Definition of Dispute Resolution. The Main Types Of Dispute Resolution: Mediation, Arbitration, Litigation. Defendant and Plaintiff as arties of the Dispute Resolution Prosses. The Systems of Jurisdiction In The World Practice. The China’s approach. Regulation (EU) N 1215/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2012. The Period of limitation. The procedure in the court. The Enforcement of judgments in international civil litigation.
Topic 9. International Commercial Arbitration
The Definition of International Commercial Arbitration. The most advantageous for international parties aspects of international arbitration. The most famous international arbitrational centres. The Arbitration agreement. Components of an arbitration clause. The Enforcement of decisions in international Commercial Arbitration.
Topic 10. The law governing international commercial contracts
Unification of International Commercial Law. Choice of law prosses as a method of filling gaps of international substantive regulation. The principle of party autonomy: definition, sources, way of expressing. Exclusions from the principle of party autonomy. The general rule governing the applicable law in the lack of Party autonomy in contract. The characteristic performance of the contract. Exclusions from the general rule in China. Exclusions from the general rule in EU. Applicable law to the consumer contract in EU. Applicable law to the employment contract in EU. Escape clause.International trade law
2nd semester (total 30 credits)Module "Theoretical Economics"
- Macroeconomic analysis and policy (3 credits)
Macroeconomic analysis and policy
2nd semester (3 credits)
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. Introduction to Macroeconomics.
Main Principles of Macroeconomics. Major Macroeconomic issues. A Brief Historical Overview of Macroeconomics. The Invisible Hand Principle. Aggregation and the Aggregation Problem. The Circular Flow Model. Macroeconomic Agents. Key Macroeconomic Indicators and Concepts.
Topic 2. National Accounts
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as the Main Macroeconomics Indicator. GDP Components. GNI and GDP Comparison. Methods of Measuring GDP: Calculation and Possible Problems. Nominal vs. Real GDP. GDP Deflator and Consumer Price Index (CPI). The Role of the Government in the Macroeconomic Policy.
Topic 3. The AD-AS Model and Goods Market Equilibrium.
The Consumption and the Savings Function. Investments Function. The Multiplier Effect. The Keynesian Cross Model. Inflationary and Recessionary Gaps. The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve. The Determinants of Demand. Changes in the Demand Curve. The Aggregate Supply (AS) Curve. The Determinants of Supply. Market Equilibrium. The Short-Run and Long-Run Comparison. Classics vs. Keynes Debate. Supply and Demand Shocks.
Topic 4. Money Market Equilibrium.
Types of Money. Functions of Money. Demand for Money as a Medium of Exchange. Money Demand, Money Supply, Their Curves, and Determinants. The Role of the Banking System in the Money Supply. Reserve Requirement and its Effects. Money Multiplier. The Liquidity Preference Principle.
Topic 5. The IS-LM Model.
The IS Curve: Сomponents, Slope, and Shifts. The LM Curve: Components, Slope, and Shifts. Interaction of the Real and Monetary Sectors of the Economy. Joint Equilibrium of Two Markets. The IS-LM Model.
Topic 6. Fiscal Policy.
The Essence and Objectives of a Fiscal Policy. Instruments of a Fiscal Policy (Taxes, Government Budget). Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy: Objectives, Methods, and Economic Effects. The Government Budget. Budget Deficit and Deficit Financing. Direct and Indirect Taxes. The Laffer Curve. The Efficiency of a Fiscal Policy in a Short-Run and in a Long-Run.
Topic 7. Monetary Policy
The Concept and Objectives of Monetary Policy. The Instruments of Monetary Policy (Open Market Operations, Reserve Requirements, Interest Rates, and Others). Expansionary and Contractionary Monetary Policy. The Monetary Transmission Mechanism. Money Targeting and InflationsTargeting Comparison. Monetary Policy and Financial Stability. The Effectiveness of the Monetary Policy Compared to Fiscal Policy.
Topic 8. Inflation and Unemployment Interdependence.
Types of Inflation. Expected Inflations. Methods of Measuring Inflation. Economic Effects of Inflation. Ways to Control Inflation. Natural Rate of Unemployment. Economic Effects of Unemployment. The Phillips Curve
Topic 9. Economic Growth.
The Main Concept of Economic Growth. The Determinants and Factors of Economic Growth. Intensive and Extensive Growth. Main Growth Theories (Smith, Malthus, Solow, Phelps). Long-Run Economic Growth. The Role of the Government in the Economic Growth of the Country.
Topic 10. Open Economy and Balance of Payments
The Difference Between Open and Closed (Autarky) Economy. The Main Criteria for the Openness of the Economy. Free Trade and Protectionism. Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate. The Connection between the Exchange Rate, Inflation, and Interest Rate. Nominal and Real Exchange Rates. Devaluation and Revaluation. Macroeconomic Policy in an Open EconomyMacroeconomic analysis and policy
- International сompetitiveness (3 credits)
2nd semester (3 credits)
The course “International competitiveness” focuses on theoretical and practical aspects of competitiveness of different economic agents in the world economy. It includes analysis of classical theories that explain international competitiveness, closely examines the factors that determine the competitiveness of different countries, and companies, as well as individuals. The course also includes the analysis of different indicators of the competitiveness that are approved by different international institutions The purpose of the course is to provide the students with knowledge, tools and skills to analyze international competitiveness of different economic agents. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “International competitiveness” is designed for 100 academic hours, in-cluding total academic hours in class – 36 (lectures – 18, seminars – 18). The form of knowledge control – exam.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. Theoretical basics of the competitiveness in the world economy
Key definitions that characterize “competitive relations”: competition, competitiveness, competitive advantage, competitive strategy, competitive potential. Main economic agents of the competitive relations in the world economy: countries, companies, individuals. Main theories that are used to explain competitive relations between different economic agents in the world economy, including theories of A. Smith, D. Ricardo, E. F. Heckscher and B. Ohlin, P. Vernon, M. Porter.
Topic 2. Structural analysis of the industry as a part of the development of competitive strategy of the company
Definition of the “industry”. Classification of the industries relevant for competitive relations. Factors that determine competitive strategy of the company on the international market. Structure of the industry. Five competitive forces of M. Porter. Potential competitors and barriers to enter the industry as well as barriers for exit from the industry. Factors that influence the intensity of the competition in the industry. Substitutes. Consumers and their market power. Suppliers and their market power. Existing and potential competitors.
Topic 3. Basic competitive strategies of the companies
Competitive strategy of the company. Classification of the competitive strategies of the companies depending on the types of the activity of the companies, and types of competitive advantage that is underlying the competitive strategy. Defensive competitive strategy. Offensive strategy. Strategy of absolute cost leadership. Strategy of differentiation. Strategy of a very clear focus. Simultaneous use of several strategies. Companies that are stuck in the middle. Relation between market share and company’s profitability.
Topic 4. Competitive advantage of the company
Competitive advantage of the company. Value chain as a basis for creation of the competitive advantage of the company. Examples of different value chains that competitor-companies in the same industry have. Specific elements of the value chain that influence the competitive advantage of the company: logistics, production, marketing and sales, after-sale services, technological development, human resources management.
Topic 5. Competitiveness of the countries in the world economy
Competitive advantage of the country. National diamond and factors that determine the competitive advantage of the country. Production factors. Demand on the internal market, and main characteristics of the internal market: demand structure, specifics of the market growth. Allied industry and support industry. Specifics of the strategies of the companies in a particular country. Role of the government. Role of different accidents.
Topic 6. Clusters as an element of the competitiveness of the countries
Clusters. Specifics of the formation of the clusters. Types of the organizations that are included in the clusters. Types of concentration of the companies within clusters. Clusters in different countries. Advantages of clusters. Geographical concentration within clusters.
Topic 7. Assessment of the competitiveness of the countries
Ratings of the countries by competitiveness. The Global Competitiveness Index and its specificity. The IMD World Competitiveness Ranking and its specificity. Doing business and its specificity.
Topic 8. Personal competitiveness in the world economy
Personal competitiveness. Factors that influence personal competitiveness. Trends in the world economy, that will determine the personal competitiveness. Cognitive thinking. Emotional intelligence.
Topic 9. Digitalization as a competitive advantage of the economic agents in the world economy
Digitalization of the world economy. New strategies and business-models of the companies, that arise as a result of the digitalization of the economy. Strategy of the digitalization of the international companies. Set of the tools, that stimulate digital innovations in the international companies. Digital ecosystem as a competitive advantage of the international companies. Impact of the digitalization on the competitiveness of different countries and individuals.International сompetitiveness
- Course Paper (3 credits)
- Global finance (3 credits)
- Corporate relationship in international business (3 credits)
- European integration (3 credits)
- Foreign language for international business (6 credits)
- European trade law (3 credits)
European trade law
2nd semester (3 credits)
The course “European Trade Law” focuses on theoretical and methodological aspects of EU-third country trade including United Kingdom. In addition, the regulations for the internal trade of the EU are analyzed, in particular the guarantee of the free trade in goods and services on the common market of the EU. Then there is the problem of the EU's membership in the WTO and its procedures for settling trade disputes. The purpose of the course is to equip students with knowledge, tools and skills to analyze legal mechanism for domestic and foreign trade. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “European Trade Law” is designed for 100 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 36 (lectures – 20, seminars – 16). The form of knowledge control – exam
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. EU Common Market
Establishment and functioning of the EU's common internal market. EU as the largest market in the world. EU existing law and policy in the field of international trade. EU trade policy after the Treaty of Rome, after the conclusion of the WTO Agreement, at the Treaty of Amsterdam, at the Treaty of Nice. Economic, thermal and customs union of the EU as part of the common economic area of the EU. Customs Procedures of the EU: Their Meaning and Types.
Topic 2. EU trade policy after Treaty of Lisbon
Distribution of competences between EU and Member States in the field of trade. EU-UK trade relations post-Brexit. Common economic policies of the EU (agriculture, fisheries, energy) and the free trade. EU legal acts regulating trade. Regulation as a European law. Directive as a flexible legal instrument to harmonize national legal systems. Decision as a single act. Recommendation and opinion as legal acts without legal obligation.
Topic 3. EU in the legal system of the WTO
Membership of the EU in the WTO. WTO Rules. Free Trade and Protectionism. Customs Tariff and Its Functions. Customs Duties. Legal mechanism of the WTO for the settlement of disputes. Banana dispute between the EU and the WTO. Dispute between the EU and the USA in the trade of passenger planes (Airbus - Boeing). Eligibility of subsidies to stimulate export business. Ensuring fair competition.
Topic 4. Regulations of trade within the EU
New customs rules for trade with the EU for UK: Non-tariff Barrier. The Main Classifications of Non-tariff Barriers/Non-tariff Measures (NTMs). The common economic area of the EU. Freedom of movement of goods. Freedom to provide services. Freedom of movement of capital. Formula Cassis de Dijon. Formula Dassonville. Formula Keck. Admissibility of Trade Restrictions: Public safety, Health protection, Protection of cultural assets.
Topic 5. EU contract law
Conclusion of a contract: offer and acceptance. Provisions on the conclusion of a contract (Articles 14 to 24) of the CISG. Essentialia negotii of a sales contract. The rights and obligations of the seller and the buyer of the goods. Directive 2000/31 / EC on electronic commerce. The form of a sales contract. Place and time of delivery. Transfer of ownership of goods. Ways of legal protection for the seller and the buyer.
Topic 6. Trade with copyrights in the EU
Contract law in the field of intellectual property. Trademarks and Logos. Registration and protection of a patent. Protection of the EU internal market from counterfeiting. Legal proceedings in the event of a violation of property rights. Term of protection of copyright and certain related rights
Topic 7. China – EU Relations in the field of Trade
EU-China trade agreement. Free trade zone and protectionism. Free market access. Intellectual property protection. Joint venture and technology transfer. EU anti-dumping measures. EU import quotas for textiles, steel products, solar batteries, accumulators, etc. EU ecological standards for imported goods.European trade law
- Legal aspects of intellectual rights protection in cyber age (3 credits)
3rd semester (total 33 credits)Module "International Trade and Innovations"
- Digital economy and E-commerce (3 credits)
Digital economy and E-commerce
3rd semester (3 credits)
The purpose of the discipline is to develop modern economic thinking among undergraduates, to study the consequences of the introduction of information and communication technologies into practical spheres of society from the point of view of the economic system and, accordingly, new features (or rules) of the modern economic environment, which, in fact, mean that the digital economy is already a reality that needs to be taken into account in practical activities. Tasks of studying the academic discipline: theoretical training of future specialists, which would allow them to study and explain complex processes and phenomena of the digital economy, to recognize the driving forces of digital transformation processes; training of competent qualified personnel who are well aware of the real pro-cesses that are taking place in the modern global economy. The acquired knowledge will contribute to the training of qualified economists who should know the basics of economic theory, be able to apply them in practice, identify and analyze the main problems of the development of the national and world economy, justify ways and mechanisms for their solution, develop measures of state economic policy, make decisions in the field of state regulation of the national economy and its subsystems. The curriculum of the discipline is based on the available domestic and foreign scientific developments on the theory and methodology of the digital economy. The place of the academic discipline in the system of training a specialist with a higher education (master's degree). An academic discipline refers to a cycle of special disciplines chosen by a mas-ter's student of a component of a higher education institution. Connections with other academic disciplines. The academic discipline "Digital Economy" is based on the study of economic theory, the world economy, microeco-nomics and macroeconomics. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Eco-nomics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “Digital economy and E-commerce” is designed for 100 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 36 (lectures – 18, seminars – 18). The form of knowledge control – end of term Test.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. Conditions for the emergence and essence of the digital economy
The fourth Industrial Revolution and the sixth technological order. New phe-nomena in the global economy. The concept and features of the digital economy. The institutional environment of the digital economy as a system. Periodization of the digital economy. Effects and risks of digitalization of the economy.
Topic 2. Technological foundations of the digital economy
The main technologies of the digital economy. Digitization. The Internet and the communication revolution. Features of the blockchain technology. Big data in economics and finance. Cloud computing and data storage.
Topic 3. Digital transformation of economic sectors
Transformation of industry in the digital economy. The concept of Industry 4.0 and the corresponding digital technologies. The concept of smart agriculture. Preci-sion farming. Precise animal husbandry. Definition and components of smart power systems.
Topic 4. International trade in the context of digital globalization
The impact of globalization and digitalization on the development of interna-tional trade. E-commerce. Cross-border electronic commerce at the present stage: dy-namics and development trends. Digital logistics.
Topic 5. Financial technologies in the digital economy
Innovative financial technologies (fintech). Digitalization of traditional financial organizations. Prospects for the development of the banking sector in the digital economy. Digital banks (neobanks) and their rating. The essence and classification of cryptocurrencies, their legal regulation in various countries. Prospects and risks of using cryptocurrencies in the global financial system.
Topic 6. Cybersecurity at the international and national level
The concept of cybercrime and cybercrime. Characteristics of global cyber-crime. National cybersecurity and information security strategies. Cybersecurity costs. International cooperation in the field of cybersecurity. Threats and challenges of cybersecurity in the Republic of Belarus. Priority measures to maintain the infor-mation security of the Belarusian state.
Topic 7. The digital State
Definition of the term "electronic government". Tasks of e-government. Interaction modules in the e-government system. E-government ratings. Digital democracy. The UN Electronic Participation Index. From e-government to a digital state. Smart cities and their ratings. Components of the smart city system. Digital transformation of healthcare. The main trends in the field of digital medicine.
Topic 8. Digital transformation of the labor market and education
Changing the nature of work in the digital economy. Digital skills and compe-tencies. Scenarios for the development of the labor market in the digital economy. Changes in the labor market and employment. Assessment of the impact of digital technologies on employment. Disappearing and new professions. Current trends in the reform of the education system in the context of digitalization.
Topic 9. Criteria for assessing the level of development of the digital economy
Formation of a system of indicators for rating the development of the digital economy. The main indices characterizing the development of the digital economy in the countries of the world. Calculation of the consensus index for evaluating countries by the level of development of the digital economy. The impact of the digital economy on economic growth.Digital economy and E-commerce
Module "International business"
- Investment management (3 credits)
- Small and medium-size enterprises in international business (3 credits)
- Economy of the EAEU member countries (3 credits)
Module "International Relations"
- World politics (3 credits)
3rd semester (3 credits)
The course “World Politics” focuses on the formation of a general and complex understanding of the functioning of the present world political system and its evolution on the eve of XX – XXI centuries. As a result, the master’s students will receive professional skills of revealing and analyzing relevant processes, trends and patterns in International Relations basing on a close interdependence between World Politics and Global Economy as well as their global and regional subsystems, subjects, key principles and characteristics. The purpose of this academic course is to develop an understanding of the content of the main processes of world politics, its system, actors and trends. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “World Politics” is designed for 108 academic hours, including total aca-demic hours in class – 48 (lectures – 36, seminars – 12). The form of knowledge control – exam.
Main objectives of the course
- to disclose the content of the system of World Politics as an integral complex of world political processes and the organizational structure of their development and regulation;
- to form a vision of global, international, regional, national, individual security, including military-political security, as a reflection and prevention of military threats using power tools;
- to consider the forms of interaction of the world economy with World Politics;
- to outline the main problems of legal regulation of modern World Politics;
- to characterize the historical forms of conflicts in World Politics, as well as modern strategies for avoiding open armed conflicts;
- to define new challenges for the world political system in XXI century.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. Basic methodological approaches to the study of world politics
- Introduction. World politics as an area of power relations in the process of world interaction.
- Features of the liberal approach
- Features of the realistic approach
- Features of the Marxist approach
Topic 2. Formation of the modern world political system
- Historical forms of activity of the subjects of the world political system.
- The birth and evolution of the state-centrist model of world politics.
- Power relations in the Vienna system of International Relations ("European Concert").
- Evolution and collapse of power relations in the Versailles-Washington system.
- Basics of World Politics during the Cold War.
- The evolution of power relations in the international arena in the era of colonization.
- Basics of the functioning of the global political system in the XXI century.
Topic 3. The structure of the modern system of world politics
- Actors of the modern political system of the world.
- Role of states and interstate formations in world politics.
- Domestic regions as actors in world politics.
- Non-state actors in world politics.
Topic 4. Basics of the functioning of the modern system of world politics
- The system of world politics as an integral complex of world political processes.
- The influence of the technological revolution on world processes.
- The process of globalization.
- Process of democratization of the world.
- The process of strengthening nationalism and radicalism.
- The problem of "global manageability" (UN, G7, D8, G20, G2).
Topic 5. Security problems in the modern world
- Different interpretations of the category "security".
- Military and political security.
- New threats and new actors in the field of military-political security.
- The problem of armed intervention.
Topic 6. The world economy and its interaction with world politics
- The main characteristics of the post-industrial economy.
- Globalization of the world economy.
- Regional economic integration (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, EEC, etc.).
- TInternational economic organizations and regimes, their role in modern world politics.
Topic 7. Arms control treaties and regimes
- Proliferation of WMD and conventional weapons.
- WMD control treaties.
- Conventional arms control treaties.
- International export control regimes.
- Prospects for the renunciation of nuclear weapons in the XXI century.
Topic 8. Problems of legal regulation of modern world politics
- International law and World politics.
- The role of the UN in the system of international law. New actors in the development of international law.
- Problems of territorial integrity and self-determination in the modern world.
- The law of armed conflicts.
- Moral and legal aspects of world politics.
- Legal support of diplomatic relations.
Topic 9. Conflicts in the modern world
- The structure of the socio-political conflict.
- International and non-international conflicts.
- Preconditions, stages of development and methods of conflict resolution.
- Strategies for preventing open armed conflicts and tools for influencing the conflict.
Topic 10. The "north-south" relationship problem
- History and reasons for the polarization of the global North and the global South. Geopolitical theory about the connections between spatial and functional-political characteristics of different countries of the world.
- Socio-economic situation of the modern North and South. Neoliberal, Neo-Marxist and Neorealist Approaches to North-South Relations.
- The heterogeneity of the South. Blurring the boundary between the global North and South. BRICS education.
- The role of the PRC as the leader of the global South. Consolidation of the North in the face of the Chinese challenge.
- Globalization and opportunities to bridge the gap between the South and the North.
Topic 11. New challenges for the world political system of the xxi century
- The role of world resources in the functioning of the system of international relations.
- Key features of the policy of the USA, EU, China, Russia in ensuring their development with energy resources.
- Demographic and migration problems in world politics.
- Environmental problems as a challenge for the world political system.
- Cross-border challenges for the world political system.
Topic 12. Problem field of world development research in XXI century
- Globalization of the world economy, its technological prerequisites and political consequences.
- The influence of global processes on the political development of states.
- Foreign policy strategies of states in the context of globalization.
- The problem of defining and classifying wars in modern international relations.
Topic 13. Research of world politics in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus
- Russian school of world politics studies.
- Formation of the Belarusian school of world politics study.
Topic 14. Modern US world politics study school
- Preconditions for maintaining US leadership in the study of world politics at the beginning of the XXI century.
- Evolution of classical trends in the US study of world politics.
- Critical theories of world politics study in the US.
Topic 15. Geopolitical and geoeconomic approaches to studying world politics
- Geopolitics as a leading direction in the study of world politics in the post-Soviet states.
- The classical geopolitical approach at the beginning of the XXI century.
- Formation of a critical approach in geopolitics.
- Geo-economic approach and its main theories.
Topic 16. Types of international order
- Establishment of an international order.
- Legitimate and revolutionary types of international order by Henry Kissinger.
- Bipolar type of international order.
- Post-bipolar period of the international order: estimates and forecasts.
Topic 17. Foreign policy models of states
- Modeling the foreign policy of states: the main tasks and directions.
- Models of foreign policy by Graham Allison.
- Value-oriented and ideological models of foreign policy.
Topic 18. Formation of a global network society and its impact
- Non-state network structures as new participants of international relations.
- Information strategies of states in the context of globalization.
- Prospects for the formation of a global network society in the XXI century.
Topic 19. Sharp and soft power in the present world politics (seminar)
Task for seminar: each master's student must prepare a review of the article written by US famous political thinker Nye J.S. “How sharp power threatens soft power” (2018) and present her or his review during the seminar as a video-report using the web-camera or as a PowerPoint presentation using the screen-demonstration function. Please, help each other in solving possible technical difficulties in use of audio- and video-resources.World politics
- Practice of Diplomacy (3 credits)
Practice of Diplomacy
3rd semester (3 credits)
The course “Practice of Diplomacy” focuses on theoretical and practical aspects of diplomatic and consular service, including study of the regulatory and legal framework, structure, modes of functioning of the central bodies of external relations, diplomatic missions and consular offices; consideration of current trends in the development of diplomacy and innovative methods of work used in modern diplomatic practice; formation of professional competencies (organizational, information and analytical) necessary in diplomatic activities. The purpose of the course is to equip students with advanced knowledge of the general organizational build-up, rules and practices of modern diplomacy, to use basic diplomatic skills in professional activity. In accordance with the curriculum for the Profiling “International Trade (Economics, Politics, Law)” of the Specialty 1-25 80 02 “World Economics” the course “Practice of Diplomacy” is designed for 108 academic hours, including total academic hours in class – 42 (lectures – 24, seminars – 18). The form of knowledge control – exam.
THE CONTENT OF ACADEMIC COURSE
Topic 1. The concept of diplomacy. History of diplomacy.
The subject and objectives of the academic discipline. Bibliographic sources: academic, scientific literature, memoirs, vocabularies, textbooks, handbooks, internet resources. The definition of diplomacy. The functions of diplomacy. The subjects of diplomatic relations. The relationship of diplomacy with the sciences: political science, history, law, economics, logic, psychology, etc. The emergence of state and diplomacy in the Ancient World. Ancient Greek diplomacy, relations between policies, contacts with barbarians. Ancient Rome: the formation of professional diplomacy. Latin terminology in modern diplomacy. Byzantine diplomatic school. Diplomacy of medieval Europe. Noble ethics, court ceremonial, their role in shaping the foundations of the diplomatic protocol. The emergence of permanent diplomatic missions. The history of diplomatic and consular law. Vienna Congress of 1814-1815. The development of multilateral diplomacy: League of Nations, the United Nations. The history of the development of the diplomatic service in the Belarusian lands. Diplomatic service of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Diplomacy of the Belarusian People’s Republic. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the BSSR. BSSR at the UN. Creation of the diplomatic service of the Republic of Belarus.
Topic 2. Main diplomatic actors. Diplomatic institutions.
Embassies, permanent missions and special missions. Consulates and consular diplomacy. The diplomatic corps. Diplomacy and international law. Diplomatic immunity. Regulation on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. Functions and structure of the MFA: minister, deputy ministers, functional, regional and administrative-technical units. The Board of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus, its formation, functions and working procedure. Official positions and diplomatic ranks. Features of the diplomatic service in the Republic of Belarus. Structure of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China.
Topic 3. Methods and instruments of diplomacy.
The evolution of diplomatic methods. Official and unofficial diplomacy: first-track diplomacy, second-track diplomacy, third-track diplomacy. Multilateral diplomacy. Special missions. Parliamentary diplomacy. Ad hoc diplomats. Secret diplomacy. Cultural diplomacy. Youth diplomacy. Sports diplomacy. Culinary diplomacy. Twiplomacy. Digital Diplomacy. Diplomacy and intelligence. Different types of diplomacy in Belarusian practice. Different types of diplomacy in Chinese practice.
Topic 4. Economic Diplomacy.
The concept of economic diplomacy. Commercial diplomacy. Trade diplomacy. Negotiations on economic agreements. Multilateral platforms for negotiations on economic agreements. World Trade Organization: its origin, evolution, modern structure and perspectives. Development cooperation. Multilateral tools on development cooperation. Development cooperation in the foreign policy of states.
Topic 5. Public diplomacy.
The main approaches to the definition of “public diplomacy” concept in domestic and foreign scientific discourse. The functions of public diplomacy. The main mechanisms and forms of public diplomacy. The role of “soft power” in modern world politics. The increasing importance of non-state actors in world politics: social movements, trade unions, religious organizations and their role in the development of public diplomacy. Concept of public diplomacy in comparison with the concepts of “non-governmental diplomacy”, “expert diplomacy”. Public diplomacy and humanitarian cooperation. Public diplomacy of the USA, of the United Kingdom, of the EU states, of the Russian Federation. Public diplomacy of the People’s Republic of China.
Topic 6. Issue areas for diplomacy.
The Diplomacy of Security. Arms Control and Disarmament Diplomacy. Peace-Building and State-Building. Human Rights. Refugee Diplomacy. Diplomacy and climate change.
Topic 7. National styles of diplomacy.
Diplomacy of major powers and superpowers. American diplomacy. English diplomats. French diplomacy. German diplomacy. Italian diplomacy. The specifics of European Union diplomacy. Japanese diplomacy. Chinese diplomacy. Diplomacy of India. Latin American diplomats. Diplomats of the Arab countries. Soviet diplomacy. Modern Russian diplomacy. Diplomacy of medium and small countries. Modern Belarusian style of diplomacy.
Topic 8. Education and competences of modern diplomat.
National system of preparation of future diplomatic staff in the Russian Federation. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO), Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. National system of preparation of future diplomatic staff in the Republic of Belarus. Faculty of International Relations of the Belarusian State University. Other higher education establishments and their role in preparation of future diplomats in Belarus. Modern requirements for the profession of a diplomat. Proficiency in foreign languages, communication skills. Independence of judgment and loyalty of a diplomat. Analytical skills of a diplomat. Ability to speak diplomatic language. The nature of the diplomatic official. Diplomatic privileges and immunities.
Topic 9. Prominent diplomats: their career and professional qualities.
Prominent Western diplomats: Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Henry Kissinger, Madeleine Albright, William Burns. Prominent Soviet diplomats: Georgy Chicherin, Allexandra Kollontay, Andrei Gromyko, Anatoly Dobrynin. Prominent Belarusian diplomats: Kuzma Kiselyov, Anatol Gurinovich, Piotr Kravchenko, Vladimir Makey. Prominent Chinese diplomats. Education and career way of the prominent diplomats.Practice of Diplomacy
- International and European energy policy (3 credits)
- Current problems of international economic relation (6 credits)
- Migration processes in the contemprary world (3 credits)
- TNC in integrational relations (3 credits)
4th semester (total 27 credits)
- Research Practice (11 credits)
- Master's Thesis - Final Attestation (16 credits)
- Creative Teaching Techniques in Higher School / Pedagogy and Psychology of Higher Education(3 credits) - 1st semester
- Russian language (3 credits) - 1st semester
- Research Tecniques - 2nd semester
1st year 4600 USD
2nd year 4600 USD
(To be confirmed)